진도출장안마■24시출장샵╔진도일본 안마방【진도누드 마사지】─<진도정선 마사지>✄진도창원 안마방╝진도신림 모텔●진도불광동 마사지⇜진도호치민 리버티 마사지┶진도나고야 여성 전용 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

진도출장안마ハ출장부르는법⇁진도일본 안마방【진도세부 마사지 엑스트라】↕<진도신포동 마사지>┠진도서면 마사지╥진도상록수 안마방△진도산남동 마사지❤진도경산 마사지♥진도마사지 알바

The governments of more than 190 nations 순천감성마사지란 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

진도출장안마↪예약금없는출장샵↶진도일본 안마방【진도겨드랑이 마사지】☜<진도출장태국마사지>☜진도안마방 초보➨진도안마방 떡♖진도강남역 마사지◘진도임파선 마사지♥진도연수동 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

진도출장안마⇗예약금없는출장샵➴진도일본 안마방【진도여성전용 안마방】➴<진도여인숙 여자>♣진도안마방 용어⇔진도청도 마사지☏진도안마방 위치┉진도출장 카톡╛진도기획 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

진도출장안마←24시출장샵✆진도일본 안마방【진도안마방 하늘이】⇥<진도텔레그램 야동>♞진도스웨디시 마사지 후기➶진도청소년 안마방♚진도서울 안마방 추천◄진도대구 모텔 촌☏진도하마사키 마오 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 해남출장서비스 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

진도출장안마⇚예약✪진도일본 안마방【진도대구 모텔 촌】╘<진도종아리 마사지 기계>↰진도부천 마사지 추천┅진도마사지 몰카╏진도일산 타이 마사지►진도브베 안마방◐진도도쿄 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 천안출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

진도출장안마진도인천 안마방

  • 평창마사지 정보
  • 진도유성 마사지
  • 진도출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    진도출장안마♀예약♮진도일본 안마방【진도출장맛사지】ユ<진도카오산로드 마사지>♪진도모유수유 마사지☁진도배 마사지⇜진도당진 마사지✓진도출장만족보장▄진도수원 출장

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 횡성청주 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, smatoos.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    전라북도도쿄 마사지 대전출장안마 통영구로 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 구미출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    진도출장안마☈예약금없는출장샵♘진도일본 안마방【진도호텔 걸】▒<진도일본놈 길거리 한국여자 꼬셔사 마사지>↛진도부산 안마방 후기ア진도지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지✥진도경마 시간♂진도감성마사지란➻진도평택 여관

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 전주안마방 ㅅㅅ an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    진도출장안마╳24시출장샵△진도일본 안마방【진도tumblr 마사지】⇪<진도남포동 안마방>﹄진도클럭 마사지┚진도러시아 안마방→진도이태원 마사지⇉진도이천 마사지‿진도셀프 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장샵 .

    서울 전주 마사지
    남양주김해 출장 마사지 군산출장샵 철원수유 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    진도출장안마┵예약금없는출장샵➼진도일본 안마방【진도배 마사지】○<진도강릉 타이 마사지>➺진도출장소이스홍성☃진도만남 방☝진도강서구 마사지✤진도천안 카페♘진도마사지 샵

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. loveganghwa.xyz .

    진도출장안마▄출장부르는법⚘진도일본 안마방【진도천안 출장】❀<진도마사지 테라피>↸진도여주 안마방♟진도건대 마사지┽진도마사지 정보”진도안마방 출장✤진도턱관절 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 부산출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 청주올탈 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    진도출장안마◕출장부르는법╠ 진도일본 안마방【진도안마방 수면】➻<진도대학로 마사지>○진도안마방 단속시간☃진도여관 녀♦진도사당 안마방⇌진도아쿠아 마사지 젤┛진도어깨 결림 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    진도출장안마↢예약금없는출장샵➨진도일본 안마방【진도평택 모텔 추천】▥<진도신사역 마사지>┯진도부산 안마방☁진도유방 마사지╙진도베트남 다낭 마사지☼진도카오산로드 마사지♨진도안마방 청소년

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 부안전립선 마사지 방법 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 부산출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 전주출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 이천셀룰라이트 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    진도출장안마♫24시출장샵➺진도일본 안마방【진도응암 마사지】✔<진도말레이시아 마사지>♕진도성인 안마방▧ 진도일산 여관☁진도안구 마사지★진도안마방 위험♘진도안마방 가성비

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 부산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    진도출장안마⇁24시출장샵♛진도일본 안마방【진도평촌 마사지】♣<진도오산 마사지>❥진도안마방 에이즈┞진도오목교 안마방♘진도다방 모텔☆진도태국 마사지 가격☶진도범계 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    익산한물간 연예인 안마방
    서울출장샵 양평사천 안마방 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    진도출장안마❂예약금없는출장샵♧진도일본 안마방【진도비엔티엔 마사지】✤<진도홍방장 안마방>◘진도다리 마사지 기계┡진도안마방 왕가슴녀✐진도출장안마추천♖진도화명동 마사지┓진도마사지 토렌

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.진도출장안마진도아침 안마방└진도노량진 안마방♞<진도고관절 마사지>진도뒷목 마사지┐진도안마방 욕┽진도발마사지﹌진도출장마사지 후기✙전주출장샵예약진도콜걸만남┗진도중랑구 마사지➺﹝진도논현 안마방﹞진도태국 마사지 토렌트.진도안마방 터치⇊진도마사지 야동 토렌트⇥진도여관 다방♠진도출장안마대전출장오피진도세종시 안마방㍿진도제주도 안마방 추천⇪『진도안마방 얼마냐』진도아다 안마방║진도편두통 마사지┌진도나트랑 마사지▐진도보라카이 마사지⊙진도여수 안마방⇌진도허리통증 마사지↕〔진도정선 사북 마사지〕진도김포 마사지フ진도싱가포르 마사지↾진도안마방 모텔┑진도마사지 ㅅㅅ£진도황제 마사지☂진도안마방 비아그라┙(진도상하이 마사지)진도여성전용 마사지 구인✲진도검단 마사지⊙진도서현 안마방”진도홍콩 마사지↷진도아스카 키라라 마사지♀진도안마방 텀블러♦(진도청주 용암동 안마방)진도안마방 몰카☑진도오류동 마사지◦진도여수 안마방☺진도거유 마사지ヌ출장부르는법하남척추 마사지예약진도아로마마사지 꿀팁☠진도구월동 마사지»‹진도자지 마사지›진도강남 안마방 추천┨진도동탄 안마방“진도안마방 풋잡╈진도서혜부 마사지 란☞진도출장안마진도출장안마창원출장안마진도출장 타이 마사지진도만남진도무한샷 안마방진도유성 마사지진도출장안마진도용암동 모텔﹃진도안마방 골뱅이┹[진도덕천 마사지]진도포항 타이마사지☣진도성감대 마사지☒진도강릉 조건녀↷진도양재역 안마방₪안동출장 타이마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.